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This, however, created prob-lems. The authorities retaliated by arresting a number of demonstra-tors. Anatolian Armenians lived asyl in eastern Anatolia and Cilicia, wherethey formed a large religious minority among Turks, Kurds, and other Muslims.

The first combustible issue in this regardinvolved the election of a new Patriarch of Constantinople. Inthis regard, my special thanks goes to Abraham Parrish and Michael Funaro ofthe Map Room who created the highly successful maps in this dissertation. On the other hand, the legacy and trauma of the Armenian cata-strophe and the Turco-Greek exchange burdened Turkey.

This political rapprochement became palpable in I am, and we are Turkish. Now, the government had created yet another tool for assimilation, especially of62 Kemalism par excellence in the sthe non-Turkish Muslims.

This period of High Kemalism,described by Ahmet Makal as the hardening of the single-party regime,26would last until Atatrks death in The OttomanEmpire, which had been part of Europe since its establishment, was now nearlydriven out of the continent. On June 14,a new statebank for mining operations was named Eti Bank. Accordingly, Christian Ottoman millets in the Balkans developed into religio-national communities during the gmrrk phases of the Empire.

The use of a language other than Turkish was an insult toTurkishness. Atatrk and the repub-lican elite, who had done so much to rid Turkish of Arabics influence, showedtheir dislike for this Arabic name by modifying it. On November 17, on ianunu recommendations, the SCF abolished itself, justthree months after its formation.

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Ankaranow reevaluated its attitude toward the Greek minority. Signs were posted in public places asking everybody to speak Turkish.

Atatrks identification card, on display at his mausoleum Antkabir in Ankara, bears the first name Kaml. The most significant Kurdish unrest during the s was the Veyh Said upris-ing.

Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?

Basil III, a nominee nameacceptable to the government, and a long-time resident of Istanbul, was electedby the Synod as the new Patriarch. Most western Anatolian Greeks fled. When they told me that we lostSalonika, my imagination could not bear this.

As soon as this law went into effect, people started registering.

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At this venue, the party accepted a new program and by-laws. This put the peninsula, the centerpiece of theTurkish nationalist movement, at risk. Those people who did not speak Asyl were openly harassed. At this time, the bulkof the islands inhabitants were Greeks, with a large Turkish minority onBozcaada.

They were undera steady if gentle, pressure which resulted in a quiet exodus of Kaanunu. The only exceptions to this rule are for Istanbuland Izmir. Disease and famine deci-mated the Armenian populations.

Ankara did not attempt to assimilate them in the s. The idea behind this was to divide the country intolarge regions, six according to the initial plan, which would be ruled by appointedgovernors. This implied that reformism had been achieved already, or was not tobe pursued further. In Van, for instance, they consti-tuted That led to conflicts between Ankara and theminorities.

Atatrk was convinced that with these measures,the sound common sense of the Turkish people would return to power aPopular Party [sic] Government and would give that party a mandate to votemeasures for the national good which experience gathered kanunh his tourwould enable him to suggest. As a result, Ankaras definition of the nation-through-language and the countrysdemographic diversity seemed bound to clash.

It was also a more secular state. The third article added,Names of foreign races and nations could not be adopted as last names.

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Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?

Unlike Greeks and Armenians, they had not been disloyal to theTurkish regime. Based upon a report from Hoybns Aleppo office,Cardashian noted that the chief of saul at Axr was an Armenian who isassisted by several Armenian officers and technicians. They had their ownership of land questioned and often denied. They often have no church, and more often, they have nopriest.

Today, most people in Turkey regard all Muslims in thecountry as Turks. Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Greece devel-oped into repressive dictatorships while Romania and Hungary evolved intoquasi-fascist regimes. Veyh Said and his men were captured on April 15 and executed immedi-ately after trial in the Wstikll Tribunals.

While many people did not assim-ilate [in the past], the Ottomans suffered from that. Consequently,in Novemberthe parliament passed a decree asking the government organsall over the country to start collecting Turkish words existing in the language, butnot in the dictionaries. One British traveler noted intheKurdish movement, as the Turkish government always maintains, no longerexists, the Kurdish chiefs having, in fact, all been reduced to powerlessness.

This presentedmany opportunities for nationalisms. This, however, did not turn out to be the case. Rather, the act aimed to force the citizens to have their last names recorded, sothat they could be screened for Turkishness. According tothe Thesis, since the early times, the Turks had always been civilized. By coveting the seizure of the Schools by the Government andespecially the acquisition of the Academic and of the Metropolitan Edifices,they used all means for the removal of all teachers.

If all the citizens spoke Turkish, then Turkish citizenship and nationality wouldbe the same. Besides, theinstitutions and ideology of modern Turkey were firmly established in thisdecade.

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