Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

Psychometric evaluation was further investigated through inter-item correlation, a measure of reliability. Internal Consistency Cronbach alpha values are presented in Table 3. A Brief Introduction of Skopos Theory.

A conceptual primer on coefficient alpha. The questionnaire was self-administered. Spanish De las Cuevas et al.

The beliefs about medicines questionnaire: In the Spanish study by De las Cuevas et al. In each case one component was extracted. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

A recalculated alpha value of 0. If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines. Thus, alpha was recalculated first by eliminating G8 from the scale, then by eliminating G4 from beliefd scale in order to see the differences between both responses.

A target sample size of patients per disease group was established. In the case of the Specific-concerns factor, all items loaded on the concerns factor, however items S6 My medicines are a mystery to me and S8 My medicines disrupt my life gave higher loadings on the General harm factor. Cognitive debriefing results and finalisation Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary questionnsire or rewording of the items.


The forward translation was discussed and revised for better harmonisation of concepts in the instrument, with the intention of capturing the conceptual meaning of the items. To our knowledge, a validated tool to qestionnaire adherence to medicines is not available in the Maltese language. Ingrid GattLorna M.

This editing process was needed to create a Maltese text which is maximally suitable for the intended patients. Due to the items loading on different components, PCA was conducted with restriction of up to four factors, by loading each item on its respective component, as was done in the Portuguese study.

Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)

Table 8 Principal component analysis carried out on individual sub-scales to confirm factor loading. Principal component analysis with Varimax rotation confirmed the original four factor structure Table 6 and Table 7 explaining Item G2 loaded on component 1 overuse despite the item belonging to the Harm sub-scale.

Items G5 and G6 loaded on component 2 harm. However, elimination of item S6 gave only minor gains with respect to the internal consistency of the tool.

BMQ – Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire

Patient selection and recruitment Four different chronic illness groups were selected based on those selected by Horne et al.

However, Mahler et al. The BMQ-General comprises 8 items which are subdivided into two sub-scales. Medication beliefs and antihypertensive belies among older adults: The General-Harm sub-scale assesses beliefs about how harmful medicines are and the General-Overuse sub-scale addresses the concept of over-prescription of medication by doctors who place too much trust in them. Questionnaiee medical folklore man and the Herpetofauna in Malta: Medixines internal consistency reliability estimates: However, anecdotally, when taking the items into consideration, G5 Medicines do more harm than good might have loaded on the overuse scale as patients might associate harm to be directly related to over-prescription, whereas G7 Doctors trust medicines too much might lead patients to assume that too much trust in medicines by practitioners leads to over-prescription and overuse, which could in turn lead to adverse effects which might be harmful.


Bmmq was clear at this point that G4 was the item that was mostly inconsistent with the rest of the items on the general overuse scale. At this stage, a potential modification was considered on the overuse scale, beliefz G4 would be eliminated from the scale. Participants were informed that the study was on a voluntary basis, that all information would be kept confidential, and that the information would only be handled by the principal investigator and would not be accessible to the hospital staff.

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire into Portuguese. The draft questionnzire the Maltese language was checked for minor errors that might have been disregarded during the translation process by the principal investigator and a colleague. This was based on the sample sizes used by Horne et al.