Although cocophilus is undeniably close to other species in the genus Bursaphelenchus (and may well prove to belong to that genus), there remains some. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. Red Ring Nematode. Synonym: Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Rhadinaphelenchus was designated a junior. The red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, was first described by Cobb. () as Aphelenchus cocophilus from specimens in.

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Tails of second- and third-stage larvae have conoid or sharply mucronate tips, and those of fourth-stage larvae have budsaphelenchus tips: Chaves Batista, A, Coconuts are especially susceptible for 2 years before and after start of fruit bearing. Symptoms include band of discolored, reddish-brown tissue about 5 cm from edge of leaf stems; discoloration extends into leaf petioles.

The telltale red ring seen here in a cross-section of a palm indicates that this particular tree is infested by red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. In some areas, infected trees can live several cociphilus years, and in some of these trees, the disease becomes chronic, manifesting itself in the continuing production of little leaves for years.

It is found mainly in the stems of palm trees, but also in leaf petioles and occasionally in roots. The disease occurs more commonly in trees 2. It was thought to be brought in on an imported palm tree or an ornamental plant. Naturally infects coconut and oil palms, can be artificially inoculated into cabbage palm and a few others. Trees that have been affected by red ring disease for more than three years are noticeably stunted compared with healthy trees of a similar age Chinchilla Biology and Ecology Top of page The vector of R.


Females have the vulva located two-thirds body length and have a vulval flap. To view an adult Bursaphelenchus cocophilus click here.

red ring nematode – Bursaphelenchus cocophilus Cobb

Recovery of Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus Cobb, Goodey, from coconut tissues. O anel vermelho do coqueiro, no estado do Ceara.

They do so by attracting and killing palm weevils which may enter the plantations from nearby diseased trees. Red ring cm wide may appear up to 8′ 2.

Rhadinaphelenchus was designated a junior synonym of Bursaphelenchus by Baujard Revue Nematol Nematodes also aggregate around ovipositor and are injected into soft tissue as beetle deposits eggs. Those nematodes are then left behind at the next palm, usually transmitted as the weevil lays its eggs. Insecticides can reduce palm weevil infestations.

Nuts are shed prematurely, either simultaneously with the development of leaf symptoms, or slightly before. Aboutsee text. Up to nematodes can be found per gram of cocophjlus greatest numbers occur ” cm below bursaphelenchua limit of ring.

Genus is characterized by vulval flap. Eventually, these new “little leaves” display varying degrees of necrosis. Esser says in litt. The nematodes also can be transmitted by tools that have been used to cut down infected trees. These nematodes reproduce sexually and have a 10 day life cycle, and can migrate and survive in soil, especially moist areas.

Trapping Traps or guard baskets are designed to protect plantations from frequent outbreaks of R. In many cases, lysigenous cavities are formed in which large numbers of nematodes are found.

The survival stage is the J3.

Native Origin Native Origin: Dissemination and Infection Bursphelenchus to Top The main vector of red ring disease is the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarumalthough vectors such as ants, spiders and other types of weevils also have been reported.


Red ring nematodes invade both palm tissue and roots. Recent developments with baited traps include use of gursaphelenchus pheromone Rhynkolure to attract the palm weevil to banana treated with insecticide Cid del Prado, pers.

It is the third larval stage that is typically deposited in a palm by Rhynchophorus palmarum as it lays its own eggs there.

Bursaphelenchus cocophilus

Damage causes reduction in water uptake by tree. Testis single, anteriorly outstretched, with spermatogonia in a row. Biology These nematodes reproduce sexually and have a 10 day life cycle, and can migrate and survive in soil, especially moist areas. If the nematode were cocophilue to Florida, an epidemic could potentially occur.

Journal of Nematology, 22 2: Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope.

Texas Invasive Species Institute

buraaphelenchus CAB International, Map The vector, Rhynchophorus palmarum the South American palm weevilcarries the J3 stage to healthy palms. Nematodes associated with declining coconut in Sergipe, Brazil. Young coconut palms easily succumb to R.

The guard baskets are sprayed with pesticide and distributed bursaohelenchus the ground in the plantations at one basket per acre 2. This aggressive phytosanitation is the best chance to halt the spread of red ring disease to other nearby trees.

This page was last edited on 27 Marchat In longitudinal section, the reddened tissue may appear as two united bands joined in the bole forming a U-shape or full circle. Most are obligate mycophagesbut some feed on woodwith two species, the red ring nematode B.

Transmission to leaf axils occurs as beetle feeds.