The bistable multivibrator has two absolutely stable states. It will remain in Thus diode D​2​ is more reverse-biased compared to diode D1. When the positive. BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUITS The two types of bistable multivibrator circuits considered here are fixed-bias bistable and self-bias bistable. SELF-BIAS BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATORS In a self-bias bistable multivibrator, the negative VBB source can be removed by including an emitter resistor RE.

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The circuit of Schmitt trigger using BJT is as shown below.

1) Design a fixed-bias bistable multivibrator using Ge transistors

Thus the initial input change circulates along the feedback loop and grows in an avalanche-like manner until finally Q1 switches fixer and Q2 switches on. In the charging capacitor equation above, substituting:. A Bistable Multivibrator has two stable states. This is another stable state of the Multivibrator. While not fundamental to circuit operation, diodes connected in series with the base or emitter of the transistors are required to prevent the base-emitter junction being driven into reverse breakdown when the supply voltage is in excess of the Bstable eb breakdown voltage, typically around volts for general purpose silicon transistors.

Thus, Set is used bbistable “set” Q1 on, and Reset is used to “reset” it to off state. The pulse width T of a monostable multivibrator is calculated as follows: It consists of two amplifying devices transistorsvacuum tubes or other devices cross-coupled by resistors or capacitors. The diode will now get reverse biased and the capacitor starts charging exponentially to -Vsat through R.


When the switch is altered, the jultivibrator of transistor Q 2 is grounded turning it to OFF state.

Q1 is on and connects the left-hand positive plate of C1 to ground. During State 1Q2 base-emitter junction is reverse-biased and capacitor C1 is “unhooked” from ground. One has high voltage while the other has low voltage, except during the brief transitions from one state to the other. Figure 1, below right, shows bipolar junction transistors. After elapsing the time, it returns to its stable initial state.

Self-bias Bistable Multivibrators – Pulse and Digital Circuits [Book]

Q2 is on and connects the right-hand positive plate of C2 to ground. Since it produced a square wavein contrast to the sine wave generated by most other oscillator circuits of the time, its output contained many harmonics above the fundamental frequency, which could be used for calibrating high frequency bistaboe circuits.

Bistable Multivibrators are used in applications such as pulse generation and digital operations like counting and storing of binary information. This is the other stable state. To approach the needed mjltivibrator waveform, the collector resistors have to be low in resistance.

The output voltage of the switched-off transistor Multivkbrator changes exponentially from low to high since this relatively high resistive output is loaded by a low impedance load capacitor C1.

Bistable Multivibrator Circuits – Pulse and Digital Circuits [Book]

Because they do not need to be the same, an asymmetric duty cycle is easily achieved. As a result, Q2 gets switched off. The capacitor discharges through resistor R and charges again to 0. By applying a negative trigger at the base of transistor Q 1 or by applying a positive trigger pulse at the base of transistor Q 2this stable state is unaltered. The transfer characteristics of electronic circuits exhibit a loop called as Hysteresis. This is a comparator circuit and hence, the output becomes -V sat.


At the same time, the other empty capacitor quickly charges thus restoring its charge the first capacitor acts as a time-setting capacitor and the second prepares to play this role in the next state. Thus C1 restores its charge and prepares for the next State 1 when it will act again as a time-setting capacitor The Principles of Known Circuits”.

Pulse and Digital Circuits by Manmadha Rao G., Rama Sudha K., Venkata Rao K.

When the voltage of C1 right-hand plate Q2 base voltage becomes positive and reaches 0. At certain value of the input voltage, Q 2 turns OFF. This is the output voltage of R 1 C 1 integrating circuit. Accordingly, one fully charged capacitor discharges reverse charges slowly thus converting the time into an exponentially changing voltage.

Assume all the capacitors to be discharged at first. The change of switch to position 2, works as a trigger. The circuit has two astable unstable states that change alternatively with maximum transition rate because of the “accelerating” positive feedback. Annales de Physique in French.

As a result, the collector voltage increases, which forward biases the transistor Q 2. Chains of bistable flip-flops provide more predictable division, at the cost of more nistable elements.

The voltage at inverting terminal will be greater than the voltage at the non-inverting terminal of the op-amp.