Dynamic stretches affect dynamic flexibility and static stretches affect static flexibility (and dynamic ballistic stretching; dynamic stretching; active stretching ; passive (or relaxed) stretching; static stretching; isometric stretching; PNF stretching. PNF, static and ballistic stretching are all effec- clients with therapeutic use of PNF for clients with conditions sive[18,] and active flexibility,[2,8,15,] with the other than .. neuromuscular facilitation stretch techniques on trained and. Sady SP, Wortman M, Blanke D: Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation? Arch Phys Med Rehabil, –,

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Finally, the frequency of three maneuvers obtained a higher immediate effect when compared with the frequencies of one and six maneuvers, being also confirmed that three and six stretching maneuvers faacilitation PNF reach a significant gain of flexibility faster than a protocol of one stretching maneuver with PNF. The use of isometric stretching is one of the fastest ways to develop increased static-passive flexibility and is much more effective than either passive stretching or active stretching alone.

PNF refers to any of several post-isometric relaxation stretching techniques in which a muscle group is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against resistance while in the stretched position, and then is passively stretched again through the resulting increased range of motion. These findings apply to hamstrings stretching, since due to particularities of each muscle, the response to stretching may differ.

A previous study was conducted with eight subjects in which the measurements obtained with the instrument were compared with photometry. The effect of time and frequency of static stretching on flexibility of the hamstring muscles. The proper way to perform an isometric stretch is as follows: The perimysial constitutes the tissue which contributes the most to the passive resistance of the skeletal muscle 2.

Furthermore, as with isometric stretching, PNF stretching is very strenuous and should be performed for a given muscle group no more than once per day ideally, no more than once per 36 hour period. The volunteer was positioned on dorsal decubitus and had the right hip sustained at 90 degrees of flexion, traininf the left lower limb remaining extended on the board.


Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

It is not really a type of stretching but is a technique of combining passive stretching see section Passive Stretching and isometric stretching see section Isometric Stretching in order to achieve maximum static flexibility. It may instead cause them to tighten up by repeatedly activating the stretch reflex see section The Stretch Reflex. Citations Publications citing this paper.

At the researcher command, the volunteer was asked to perform maximal strength for leg extension, contracting the hip extensors for five seconds and the contraction was resisted by the therapist. Muscular tixotrophy is the result of an increase in the number of steady ligations between the actin and myosin when the muscle is relaxing.

Such maneuver was repeated the number of times corresponding to the group to which the participant belonged, keeping an interval of 30 seconds in between them. Influence of the cooling and the heating in the stretching of the hamstring muscles.

Nevertheless, in the following session, when the pre-stretching measurement of the KAE was performed, a decrease of the MAB was observed concerning the post-stretching measurement of the previous session, characterizing thus, a loss in the immediate gain. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the following data: Nonetheless, none of them have related frequency and stretching techniques which involve active muscular inhibition.

In this case, some of the muscle fibers are already stretched before the contraction, and, if held long enough, the initial passive stretch overcomes the stretch reflex see section The Stretch Reflex and triggers the lengthening reaction see section The Lengthening Reactioninhibiting the stretched fibers from contracting.

An example of using the wall to provide resistance would be the well known “push-the-wall” calf-stretch where you are actively attempting to move the wall even though you know you can’t.


Barcelona SpainJune, The signal which tells the muscle to contract voluntarily, also tells the muscle spindle’s intrafusal muscle fibers to shorten, increasing sensitivity of the stretch reflex. Int J Ballishic Med. As a result, in order to decrease the amount of time taken up by your stretching routine without decreasing its effectivenessHFLTA recommends performing only one PNF technique per wtatic group stretched in a given stretching session.


Moreover, this study’s sample was relatively young, mean age However, there are a number of people who make a distinction between the two. The free arm was taken from the board to the maximal reached point. This is stretching, or “warming up”, by bouncing into or out of a stretched position, flexibillity the stretched muscles as a spring which pulls you out of the stretched position.

Such finding leads us to believe that in the middle run, the faciliitation of three repetitions with PNF would be more appropriate in order to promote a faster gain of flexibility in facjlitation to the frequency of a stretching with PNF, without difference in this gain velocity when this frequency is increased to six repetitions with PNF. The therapist passively flexed the participant’s right hip up to her pain threshold, position in which discomfort in the hamstrings was reported. Skip facilitatkon search form Skip to main content.

Types of Stretching How to Stretch: All participants were asked to suitably wear comfortable garments that would not restrict their movements both during the measurements and the stretching protocol.

Ballistic stretches involve trying to force a part of the body beyond its range of motion.