We used the handbook as developed by Frans Geilfus, which covers 80 tools for participatory development as an important base for this tools guide. A selection. Geilfus, Frans. 80 tools for participatory development: appraisal, planning, follow- up and evaluation / Frans Geilfus. — San Jose, C.R.: IICA,. p. ; 24 cm. Title: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo participativo” de Frans Geilfus (IICA, ), Author: brenda chau pasco, Name: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo.

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Changes and trends in lateral carbon flows Changes in the arctic hydrological cycle, e. Actual emissions from permafrost soils may therefore be quite different from the potential decomposition rates obtained in incubation studies. Introduction From the perspective of an astronaut, looking down on the Earth high above the North Pole, it is self-evident that the marine and terrestrial carbon cycles of the Arctic cannot be considered separately.


Atmospheric observations of Arctic Ocean methane emissions up to 82 degrees north. Following from the large uncertainties in the functioning of the Arctic Ocean carbon sink, we lack robust predictions of how the uptake of carbon may evolve in the gdilfus.

On top of the ocean floats a thin layer of sea ice that strongly governs conditions for primary production, air—sea exchange of greenhouse gases and the surface energy balance.

Only the main road is paved and connects towards the northeast with the municipal township, and towards the southeast with the communities of Frns and San Mateo. The influence of sea ice cover on air-sea gas exchange estimated with radon profiles. A simple snow manipulation experiment in Sub-Arctic Sweden showed that frnas doubling of the snow depth led to permafrost degradation and vegetation change in just a few years Johansson et al.

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Geologic methane seeps along boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers. Climate-sensitive northern lakes and ponds are critical components of methane release.

Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of the arctic terrestrial and marine carbon cycle, connections in between, and how this gei,fus system is affected by climate change and a declining cryosphere.

Besides, thermokarst lakes formed through permafrost thaw can evolve from being net emitters of greenhouse gases to locations of long-term sequestration of carbon, converting these lake basins to net carbon sinks Fras Anthony et al. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Rapid responses of permafrost and vegetation to experimentally increased snow cover in sub-arctic Sweden. The current downturn of the arctic cryosphere, such as the strong loss of sea ice, melting of ice sheets trans glaciers, and permafrost thaw, affects the marine and terrestrial carbon cycles in numerous interconnected ways.

Environmental economics

Controls on Boundary Scavenging. Impact of Multi Year Ice Melting. This situation makes evident their preference for the seed of greater size and uniformity, when choosing grains in the central and basal part of the corncob because they expect to obtain in their crops a higher number of seedlings that are more vigorous. The hydrological cycle is an important connecting factor between the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding land. They are also characterized by being farmers and livestock producers; they identify as a group, which shares socioeconomic and cultural aspects.

In recent years, he has focused on the importance of climate change for marine carbon and nitrogen cycling. Inorganic carbon transport during sea ice growth and decay: Similar large peaks of methane have since been observed in Adventdalen, Svalbard Pirk et al. The impact of lower sea-ice extent on Arctic greenhouse-gas exchange. In maize Zea mays L. Large uncertainties remain, however, on the future development of the various components of the arctic carbon cycle, under pressure from permafrost thaw and sea ice decline.


Gas hydrates represent a large potential source of methane from the ocean floor Kretschmer et al. This article seeks to provide a comprehensive review of recent information on ecosystem—atmosphere interactions in the Arctic, carbon cycling in terrestrial and marine ecosystems of the high latitudes, and how they interact with each other in the context of sea ice decline and permafrost thaw.

Taken together, it is possible that the Arctic Ocean may not be the fast-changing or large source of methane as previously feared Shakhova et al. In addition, several recent studies have reported on the wide-spread occurrence of sea-ice algae aggregates below melting summer ice in the central Arctic and the Fram Strait Boetius et al.

Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

High calculated sinks for atmospheric CO 2 in the fjords and shelf waters around southern Greenland are the result of high primary production and release of meltwater from glaciers leading to low p CO 2sw Rysgaard et al.

On the other hand, the regions that practice entrepreneurial agriculture lean on frwns use of pesticides, fertilizers, machinery, improved seed, etc. The phenotypical variety of maize that predominates in Valle de Acambay corresponds to the conical type, which has an acceptable yield; its highest adaptability to the valley will contribute to deriving precocious populations of higher yield.

Air-sea grilfus of CO 2 in the Arctic Ocean, — Air-sea flux of CO grans in arctic coastal waters influenced by glacial melt water and sea ice. Evidence for enhanced air-sea gas transfer during ice formation.