GEORGIUS AGRICOLA DE RE METALLICA PDF
GEORGIUS AGRICOLA t. DE RE METALLICA. TRANSLATED FROM THE FIRST LATIN EDITION OF with. Biographical Introduction, Annotations and. De Re Metallica By: Georgius Agricola Originally published in , Agricola’s De ReM etallica was the first book on mining to be based on field research. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. A Presidential Classic The original edition of De Re Metallica (On the Nature of Metals, or Minerals) by Georg Bauer, writing.
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The book was greatly influential, and for more than a century after it metalllca published, De Re Metallica remained a standard treatise used throughout Europe.
Partly, that was because this knowledge was very difficult to access. This book describes how an official, the Bergmeisteris in charge of mining.
Designs of wind scoop for ventilating shafts or forced air using dde or bellows are also described. Our knowledge of medieval mining relies mainly on archaeological remains and on the legal organization revolving around the mining industry.
Then cupellationcruciblesscorifiers and muffle furnaces are described.
De Re Metallica – Agricola, Hoover
This book deals with assaying techniques. There is a section on how the mine can be divided into shares. These are very similar for smelting different metals, constructed of brick or soft stone with a brick front and mechanically driven bellows at the rear.
That is why the book of Agricola is also historically important. It is one of the first works in which practical matters are discussed in a scholarly way. As such he took part in several national days and peace talks which were held in connection with the wars of religion in Germany.
He then describes ree works of ancient and contemporary writers on mining and metallurgy, the chief ancient source being Pliny the Elder. Agricola had, as befits a scholar, frantically looked up all kinds of ancient writers on the subject, but the harvest was very thin. The entire vein should be removed.
De Re Metallica full text & illustrated. Agricola. Hoover.
Translating the work of Agricola is, because of the many outdated technical concepts, not easy, but both translations are carried out with great care. Although he also thoroughly studied the mining industry in his own country Saxony Freiberg in Saxony was an important mining centre the basis of his work are his experiences as the town physician of St.
Agricola just wanted to describe the practice metalljca the craftsmen. As a consequence, all kinds of technical innovations gradually entered the mining industry. Iron wedges, hammers and crowbars are used to break other rocks. At the front is a pit called the fore-hearth to receive the metal. Agricolla and silver are parted using an aqua which is probably nitric acid.
It was a small, cosmopolitan elite within which existing knowledge was passed on and further developed but not shared with the georgiuss world.
In the time of Agricola technique still entirely a matter of craftsmen who produced a stunning amount of work without theoretical knowledge but with a lot of experience and not to mention lots of inventiveness. Inthe first English translation of De Re Metallica was privately published in London by subscription. With this introduction Agricola shows how innovative his work really is. De re metallica Title page of edition.
Gems are found in some mines, but rarely have their own veins, lodestone is found in iron mines and emery in silver mines.
It is impossible to date…. Only centuries after Agricola were science and technology agrivola far progressed that they could be valuable for each other. The book was reprinted in a number of Latin editions, as well as in German and Italian translations. In some gold and silver smelting a lot of slag is produced because of the relative poverty of the ore and the tap hole has to be opened at various times to remove different slag materials.
He describes the processes involved in ore sorting, roasting and crushing. But for the most part it was pure scientific curiosity. His main job was that of doctor, but he studied all known science in that time.
In it, among other things, Agricola surveys historical and Classical allusions to metals and assesses the content and distribution of metal mines in antiquity. Originally published inAgricola’s De ReM etallica was the first book on mining to be based on field research and observation — what today would be called the mefallica approach.
De re metallica
Finally he comments on the practice of naming veins or shafts. Subsequent metallica into other languages, including German, heorgius much to the Hoover translations, as their footnotes detail their difficulties with Agricola’s invention of several hundred Latin expressions to cover Medieval German mining and milling terms that were unknown to classical Latin.
Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article: As mentioned before we know very little of what precisely took place in that era. The cupel is placed in the furnace and copper is separated into the lead which forms lithage in the cupel leaving the noble metal. The use of a touchstone to assay gold and silver is discussed. Agricola describes searching streams for metals and gems that have been washed from the veins.
Whomever possessed a mine usually also owned the means to further process the ore. Finally ladders and lifts using wicker cages are used to get miners up and down shafts. There are two modern translations of the book of Agricola.
In his youth he taught Latin and Greek for a while; During this time he also published a Latin grammar. That later scholars could make that step, however, was also due to the fact, that they all were put on a new track by Agricola. The tunnel dug at the bottom meetallica the vein and is just big enough for a man. This dialogue, in which mainly mining knowledge is treated, can be considered a preliminary study for his later De Re Metallica.
The dangers to miners are dismissed, noting that most deaths and injuries are caused by carelessness, and other occupations are hazardous too. Mining was typically left to professionals, craftsmen and experts who ayricola not eager to share their knowledge.
Other smelting processes are similar, but lead is not added. Methods for lining tunnels and shafts with timber are described. Although Agricola died inthe publication was delayed until the completion of the extensive and detailed woodcuts one year after his death.