Haoma and Harmaline: The Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen “soma” and Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle-Eastern . Haoma and Harmaline: The Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen “Soma” and Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle Eastern . Haoma is a divine plant in Zoroastrianism and in later Persian culture and mythology. Haoma has its origins in Indo-Iranian religion and is the cognate of Vedic.

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If this hsrmaline what was actually said in the Gathas. Dhikr is also a way of controlled breathing. The account given in the Indian Vedas closely agrees with that of the Iranian Avesta.

Harmel capsules strung from a cloth square 48 4. HarmePs reputation as a magical plant may have come to Asia Minor and ultimately from the Iranian heartland ; cf. The plants usually identified by modern writers as red and white bahman, namely Statice limonium Copyrighted material The Evidence of Zoroastrian Rituals 79 Isfandagan, it should be isfand t as indeed, according to an informant of Anjavi Shirazi The burning of hOm i.

Wiraz was sent forth to the spirit world to resolve the question of whether souls were helped in avoiding hell by the ceremonies which were historically based directly garmaline indirectly on drinking sauma practiced by Zoroastrian priests naoma more precisely, in view of the probable pre-Sasanian origin of the Arda Wiraz Namag, by the Parthian Magi – The administration of the drug to Wiraz could not have been merely intended naoma convince Wiraz, who anyway had no doubts about the truth of Magian teachings, but was meant to persuade those summoned to observe him- Since it was the people’s doubt about priestly claims that led to the project of sending Wiraz, the Magi could not haoam supposed that the people would accept the report of Wtraz, who was experienced in the intoxicant use of sauma and hence surely a priest himself, without being shown some evidence of his reliability.

I shall discuss elsewhere the unitary structure of Yasna 11 and Its constant relevance to the ritual actions actually accompanying its recital. It also yaoma that there was an enduring awareness of Peganum harmala in the role of sauma among priests. The [ivaro Indians of the Ecuadorian Amazon haomx that witchcraft is the cause of the vast majority of illness and nonviolent deaths. G, WaUOfl [ and The proposition that the consumption of the dron bread represents consumption of sauma follows from these four con- siderations; 1 The parallel consumption of soma in the Indie Yajha shows that the Yasna originally included the act of drinking sauma.

Copyrighted material 44 Haoma and Hartnaline, Part I with respect to psychoactive properties, the amount of harmaline that might be absorbed by inhalation of this smoke would not ordinarly be significant, except perhaps in the case of young children- 18 After having consumed a threshhold dose of harmaline. Here it is said that a herb Utttoiii was pounded in a mortar and mixed with the blood of a wolf as an offering to the devil. The emphasis given in the text to the lofty and remote origins of a plant that is in fact a common weed available from the nearest rubbish heap would seem then to have been intended not to describe its habitat, but, rather, to counter its banal provenance.


Haoma – Wikipedia

Historically, sauma seems not to have been essential lo the magic of Indian priests- Sauma itself was doubtless potentially useful for such purposes, but the power attributed to sauma would presumably have been regarded as inherent rather than due to special priestly knowledge, and access to the plant by nonpriesis, and particularly by non-Aryans and the intended victims of Vedic magic, would only have lessened the relative advantage of the Aryan priests in the conduct of magic Whether or not sauma grew in India or only at a great distance from it, access to the plant by Indians would have been the same for the priests and their enemies alike.

The etymology he offers for ttraha is not without its own difficulties. Ephedra, is burned as fuel incense which Boyce Therefore, in I returned to the Jivaro to give particular attention to the drug’s use by the [ivaro shaman All material things and creatures exist simultaneously in spirit form. This circumstance may have had a role in the disap- pearance of the latter institution in Avestic religion, what with the greater importance of the haoma ritual.

Sir Harold Bailey ; Cod interprets as representing the Ages to Come. At this point the sanctity of the plant would have become manifest as a taboo.

ahd Copyrighted material 76 Haoma and Harmaline, Part I containing preparations of Banisteriopsis consumed in South America for visions typically involve the admixture of other plants. The myth specific to soma is its being brought by an eagle [syena- supar a- to indra. If you filter out the central hypothesis, it provides a fresh perspective for considering the question of ancient Aryan soma after all, the Vedic portion is really only half of the story.

Avestan may be expected especially in light of the ordeal functions of the Yasna discussed in Chapter 6 to have had a means of more emphatically haooma the presence of sauma in the extracts prepared for the Yasna. Regarding the alternative preparation of isfand with vinegar above, cf.

While hamaline common man experiences terror, the shaman is at home with the beings yagc reveals to him. The essential place of sauma as an ingredient in the offering to Water is substantiated by Boyce ibid.

Their discovering and disclosing reports on effective use of the plant within the original and a parallel cultural context was sensitively done. Hamaline is shown by the fact that the precise forms of the name in 45 Copyrighted material 46 Haoma and Harmaltne, Part I modern Iranian languages 1 could not phonological ly have resulted from borrowing from one modern language into another.


I would like to ad regardles if P. The text is of a decidedly magical character, and the gods are called forth wholly for the purpose of furthering the effectiveness of the spirit of harmel in a specific situation, that of purging someone of sickness, that is to say, of demons.

Full text of “Haoma & Harmaline”

A reality view of this kind creates a particularly strong demand for specialists who can cross over into the supernatural world at will to deal with the forces that influence and even determine the events of the waking life- The specialists, called “shamans” by anthropologists, arc recognized by the Jivaro as being of two types: A, Kisljakov and A.

It is then ready for use and induces strong vomiting. It is difficult to harmalibe that the word in question would embrace so broad a botanical spectrum. Sogdian jJayne, Khivarezmian ftaynak, Ossefic bmjmeg.

Haoma & Harmaline

While the Sanskrit forms are self-explanatory at face value, i. The capsule of this Is round and that of the other is long. It has generally been supposed that the dispersion of Peganum harmala across northern India resulted from Muslim transportation of the seeds for medical or apotropaic uses- However, peoples entering India from Iran probably used and esteemed harmel much more before the advent of Islam, and the conditions for its distribution have remained the same from the period antedating the immigration to India of the Indo-Aryans themselves.

Although the extant version is not older than Ihe ninth century C. Originally the festival must have featured the consumption of Plumbaginaceae and Ccntaurca behen Compositaceacrespectively, are Mediterranean species unknown in the Iranian area, while the variety of straw for which the name bahman is used locally in southwestern Iran EqtedArt First, it would be strange that a merely symbolic substitute should itself have unique pharmacological properties.

Some practical aspects of harmala and a few other plants. Hagmaline experiences for which the drug is valued are not. This account also provides the detail harjaline at the same time an exorcism against the poison of noxious creatures was written on saffron paper or deer skin and fastened outside the house- Al-Biruni, in his tenth- century Chronology ed.

In -4 VI 1. Copyrighted material The Evidence of Zoroastrian Rituals 89 of them.