HORNO BASICO DE OXIGENO BOF PDF

Aceración con Hornos Básicos de Oxígeno La refinación del arrabio en el proceso BOF o aceración al oxígeno se lleva a cabo en un recipiente que asemeja. Horno Básico de OxígenoUNIDAD 6 Horno Siemens Martin. Convertidor de Soplado Nariz (N) Lanza de Oxigeno (L) Cintur. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF), whose profile is shown in the figure, is a tiltable vessel lined with refractories such as magnesia carbon brick. Auxiliary.

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This process is known as “slag splashing”. There are lesser energy contributions from the oxidation of iron, manganese, and phosphorus. Over the years, there have been numerous operating developments designed to counteract this lining wear: None of the above would be significant however, without the improvements in quality and type of basic brick ooxigeno to the industry.

The remainder of U. It is transported to the BOF shop either in torpedo cars or ladles.

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Nevertheless, the appeal of lower energy, labor, and refractory costs for the LD bssico could not be denied and although oxygen usage in the open hearth delayed the transition to the new process in the U. These work in conjunction with melter’s eyeballs, which remain the dominant control device.

Fluxes serve two important purposes. Hot metal is liquid iron from the blast furnace saturated with up to 4. However, for environmental reasons these types of bricks are no longer used in oxygen steelmaking.

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In some shops, sublances provide a temperature-carbon check about two minutes before the scheduled end of the blow. Therefore, thanks to the engineering genius of Alexander Holley, two Bessemer plants were in operation by There are two interesting historical footnotes to the original Bessemer story: The lance is water-cooled with a multi-hole copper tip.

Secondary fugitive emissions associated with charging and tapping the BOF vessel, or emissions escaping the main hood during oxygen blowing, may be captured by exhaust systems serving local hoods or high canopy hoods located in the trusses of the shop or both.

Slag in the ladle results in phosphorus reversion, retarded desulfurization, and possibly “dirty steel”. Fuentes, Bog Zamora G.

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The hot metal is immediately poured directly onto the scrap from a transfer ladle. Because oxygen was not available commercially in those days, air was the oxidant.

Development now moved to neighboring Austria where developers wanted to produce low nitrogen, flat-rolled sheet, but a shortage obf scrap precluded open hearth operations. In addition, as the tar softened during vessel heat-up, the lining was relieved of expansive stresses.

Today, the refractory industry is undergoing major structural changes. As a result, Bessemer’s steel suffered from both “hot shortness” due to sulfur and “cold shortness” due to phosphorus that rendered it unrollable.

The new process was officially dubbed the “LD Process” and because of its high productivity was seen globally as a viable, low capital process by which the war torn countries of Europe could rebuild their steel industries. However, with the know-how and capital invested in million tons of open hearth capacity, plans for additional open hearth capacity horo along, cheap energy, and heat sizes greater by an order of magnitude versus 30 tonsthe incentive to install this untested, small-scale process in North America was lacking.

However, the daily output of remotely located charcoal blast furnaces was very low.

For his first commercial plant in Sheffield,Bessemer remelted cold pig iron imported from Sweden as the raw material for his hot metal. Near the end vasico a campaign, gunning with refractory materials in high wear areas may also be necessary.

Fumes and kish graphite flakes from the carbon saturated hot metal are emitted from the vessel’s mouth and collected by the pollution control system. There were also acrimonious legal actions over patent rights to the process and the supersonic lance design, which was now multihole rather than single hole.

The hot metal chemistry depends on how the blast furnace is operated and what hlrno iron-bearing materials are charged to it. It was blown through tuyeres in the bottom of the pear shaped vessel.

Unlike the open hearth, the BOF operation is conducted almost “in the dark” using mimics and screens to determine vessel inclination, additions, lance height, oxygen flow etc.

Static charge models however do not ensure consistent turndown at the specified carbon and temperature because the hot metal analysis and metallic charge weights are not known precisely. Sludge from wet scrubbers requires an extra drying step. Steel scrap is available in many forms. Very large pieces of hodno can be difficult to melt and may damage the vessel when charged.

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Suppressed combustion systems offer the potential for recovery of energy, a practice that is more prevalent in Europe and Japan. Supreme Court supported lower court decisions that considered the patent to be invalid.

Metallic carbides, nitrides, and magnesium-aluminate spinel form in service at the hot face of the brick filling voids, and adding strength and resistance hornp slag attack. About half of the systems oxigenl open combustion designs where excess air is induced at the mouth of the hood to completely burn the carbon monoxide.

The most common desulfurizing reagents, lime, calcium carbide and magnesium – used alone or in combination – are injected into the hot basio through a lance. Most European iron ores and therefore hot metal was high in sulfur and phosphorus and no processes to remove these from steel had been developed in the s.

The original bricks were tar bonded, xe the MgO grains were coated with tar and pressed warm represented a great step forward for the BOS process. The process was acknowledged as a breakthrough technically but the timing, scale, and economics were wrong for the time.

The major categories are “home scrap”, generated within the plant. Kaiser Industries held the U. However, it appears that the blast furnace and the BOS will be with us for many decades into the future. A very high percentage of refractory materials are being produced off shore, with China being the most significant newcomer.

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Some dimensions of a typical ton BOF vessel in the U. However, it is clear that Kelly’s “air boiling” process was conducted at such low blowing rates that the heat generation barely offset the heat losses.

Oxigenno ton BOF today needs about 20 tons of pure oxygen every 40 minutes. The gases are then cooled and cleaned either in a wet scrubber or a dry electrostatic precipitator. The high concentrations of FeO formed late in the blow, however, will oxidize the carbon in the brick.

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