March Notes on the Antisymmetry of Syntax. Bernhard Rohrbacher. University of Pennsylvania. Follow this and additional works at. syntax came into its own as a tool for investigating and explaining typological variation 2″Antisymmetry and Japanese” () English Linguistics, syntax has no tools that can be used to analyze linear asymmetries (see . closer to answering the questions raised by Kayne’s antisymmetry.

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The Abtisymmetry and Austronesian languages of southeast Asia and many African languages come close antisymmettry rigidly right-branching, with numerals as well as adjectives following their nouns and with degree words like verytooextremelyand quite following the adjectives they modify.

The head appears in a medial lanye, which means that the phrase combines both types of branching. Kayne argues that a theory that allows both directionalities would imply an absence of asymmetries between languages, whereas in fact languages are found not to be symmetrical in many respects.

He gives several generalizations about the adjunction of syntactic units which are important for the further development of the theory in the following chapters: Subsequently, there have also been attempts at deriving specifier-complement-head as the basic word order.

Antisymmetry – Wikipedia

Kayne tries to find the most plausible movement rules. Most structures in English are, however, not completely left- or completely right-branching, but rather they combine antisymmetrry.

Introducing Transformational Grammar Second Edition. Despite these conflicting traits, most standard X-bar structures in English are more right-branching than left-branching because specifiers tend to be less complex i. French as a Case Study.

This gives rise to the total ordering: The nature of branching is most aantisymmetry with full trees. Adjunction of a head to a kante is systematically unavailable. How is that done? As a result, there is no right adjunction, and hence in practice no rightward movement either. Linguistic Inquiry 19, — He calls this unspecified structure bare small clause.


LINGUIST List R. Kayne, The Antisymmetry of Syntax

In a recent manuscript, Kayne has proposed recasting the antisymmetry of natural language as a condition on “Merge”, the operation which combines two linguistic elements into one complex linguistic element. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This justifies the absence of lexical subject. Takita argues against the conclusion of Kayne’s Antisymmetry Theory which states that all antksymmetry are head-initial at an underlying level.

Thus Takita shows that surface head-final structures in Japanese do not block movement, as they do in Chinese. Worth noting in this area is that the more layered the syntactic structures are, the more discontinuities can occur, which means the component of the theory that addresses discontinuities must play a greater role.

The following tree illustrates these concepts:. This particle is taken to convey perfect aspectual meaning, and thus to be the head of an aspect phrase, having the verb antisymmetrt as its complement. Kayne illustrates the application of LCA within the phrase markers of X-bar theory providing some of the main postulates of that theory with explanations directly derived from the LCA.

Note that the b -trees also contain a PP phrase that is an instance of pure right-branching. It is left-branching insofar as the bar-level projection of the head X’ follows the specifier, but it is right-branching insofar as the actual head X 0 precedes the complement. Why is it that this particle is on the left edge of the clause in English, but on the right edge in Japanese? Clitics in the languages of Europe, Empirical approachesto language typology.


Invoking i-precedence prevents more than two elements from merging with H; only one element can i-precede H the specifierand H can i-precede only one element the complement. Kayne’s theory also addresses the position of the specifier of a phrase. Contrary to the standard assumption that a given hierarchical representation is associated with more than one linear order, and the wide spread separate treatment of phrase structure and linear order, the author formulates the following kante Kayne claims that head movement is always leftward.

Chapter 3 treats the fundamental problem of antisymmetfy. A nonhead cannot be adjoined to a head. Languages Simple English Edit links.

Origins, Concepts, Methods, and Aims.


Processing, typology and function. Now it is clear why Japanese does not have wh-movement — the [Spec,CP] position is already filled, so no wh-phrase can move to it. Given the flatter structures associated with n-ary branching, certain phenomena e.

An attempt to provide evidence for Kayne’s scheme is made by Lin, [19] who considered Standard Chinese sentences with the sentence-final particle le.

Languages like English or Swedish, though regarded as being right-branching because the main verbs tye direct objects, place adjectives and numerals before their nouns. That is achieved by the introduction of segments in phrase structures and the distinction between a segment and a category.

The following sentence is completely left-branching. This page was last edited on 26 Novemberat